xx, 459 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 424-444) and index.
From racial profiling to the issues surrounding immigration and the death penalty, controversies involving race and ethnicity pervade the criminal justice system. This work is a book on the current research and theories of racial, ethnic, and gender discrimination within America's criminal justice system. The authors synthesize the best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, police practices, court processing and sentencing, the death penalty, and correctional programs to give a comprehensive and balanced look at racial and ethnic discrimination within America's criminal justice system. It incorporates discussion of all major racial and ethnic groups found in the United States.
1. Race, ethnicity and crime : the present crisis -- The scope of this book -- Objectives of the book -- Goals of the chapter -- The colors of America : racial and ethnic categories -- Racial and ethnic categories -- The politics of racial and ethnic labels -- The quality of criminal justice data on race and ethnicity -- The geography of racial and ethnic justice -- Disparity versus discrimination -- The law of discrimination -- The discrimination-disparity continuum -- A theoretical perspective on race, ethnicity, and crime -- Alternative theories -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
2. Victims and offenders : myths and realities about crime -- Goals of the chapter -- A broader picture of the crime victim -- The National Crime Victimization Survey -- Household victimization -- Personal victimization -- Trends in household and personal victimization -- Lifetime likelihood of victimization -- Homicide victimization -- Summary : a more comprehensive picture of the crime victim -- Picture of the typical offender -- Official arrest statistics -- Perceptions of offenders by victims -- Self-report surveys -- Summary : a picture of the typical criminal offender -- Crime as an intraracial event -- National Crime Victimization Survey -- Uniform Crime Report Homicide reports -- Summary -- Crime as an interracial (hate) event -- Ethnic youth gangs -- Gang myths and realities -- Varieties of ethnic gangs -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
3. Race, ethnicity, social structure, and crime -- The images from hurricane Katrina -- Two societies? -- Goals of the chapter -- Economic inequality -- Income -- Wealth -- Unemployment -- Poverty status -- Insurance coverage -- Social capital and cultural capital -- Progress, stagnation, or regression? : the debate over the status of African Americans -- The debate over the underclass -- Community social structure -- Residential segregation -- Theoretical perspectives on inequality and crime -- Social strain theory -- Differential association theory -- Social disorganization theory -- Culture conflict theory -- Conflict theory -- Routine activity theory -- The limits of current theories -- Inequality and social reform -- The impact of the civil rights movement -- The arrack on economic inequality -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
4. Justice on the street? : the police and racial and ethnic minorities -- Unequal justice? -- Complex and ambiguous evidence -- Goals of the chapter -- A contextual approach -- A long history of conflict -- The police and a changing America -- Public attitudes about the police -- The impact of police officer conduct -- Policing racial and ethnic minority communities -- The African American community -- The Hispanic community -- The Native American community -- The Middle Eastern community -- Police use of deadly force -- Disparity versus discrimination in police shootings -- Controlling police shootings -- "Police brutality" : police use of physical force -- Discrimination in arrests? -- Zero-tolerance policing -- Traffic stops : racial profiling -- The use of race in law enforcement -- Profiling contexts -- The data on traffic stops -- Interpreting traffic stop data -- Eliminating bias in traffic enforcement -- The PERF policy on traffic enforcement -- A success story : the Customs Bureau -- Street stops and frisks -- Special issue : stereotyping and routine police work -- Verbal abuse -- Police officer attitudes and behavior -- Police corruption and people of color -- Police-community relations programs -- Special units -- Community policing -- Responding to specific community concerns -- Reduce officer misconduct -- Ensuring cultural competence -- Citizen complaints against the police -- Citizen oversight of the police -- Police employment practices -- Trends in African American and Hispanic employment -- The law of employment discrimination -- Discrimination in assignment -- The impact of diversity -- People of color as supervisors and chief executives -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
5. The courts : a quest for justice during the pretrial process -- The situation today -- Goals of the chapter -- Decisions regarding counsel and bail -- Racial minorities and the right to counsel -- Racial minorities and bail decisionmaking -- Charging and plea bargaining decisions -- Prosecutors' charging decisions -- Race and plea bargaining decisions -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
6. Justice on the bench? : trial and adjudication in criminal court -- Goals of the chapter -- Selection of the jury pool -- Techniques for increasing racial diversity -- The peremptory challenge : racial profiling in the courtroom? -- The Supreme Court and the peremptory challenge : from Swain to Batson -- Playing the "race card" in a criminal trial -- Race-conscious jury nullification : Black power in the courtroom? -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
7. Race and sentencing : in search of fairness and justice -- Goals of the chapter -- Racial disparity in sentencing -- Four explanations for racial disparities in sentencing -- Empirical research on race and sentencing -- Reviews of recent research -- When does race/ethnicity matter? -- Race/ethnicity and sentencing : direct and indirect effects -- Race/ethnicity, gender, age, and employment : a volatile combination? -- Differential treatment of interracial and intraracial sexual assault -- The effect of race on sentencing for various types of crimes -- Sentencing and the war on drugs -- Sentencing reform : the quest for a "just" punishment system -- Challenges to the indeterminate sentence -- Race/ethnicity and the federal sentencing guidelines -- Race/ethnicity and state sentencing reforms -- Have sentencing guidelines increased the likelihood of radical discrimination? -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
8. The color of death : race and the death penalty -- Goals of the chapter -- The constitutionality of the death penalty -- Furman v. Georgia -- Post-Furman decisions -- Attitudes toward capital punishment -- Race and the death penalty : the empirical evidence -- Statistical evidence of racial disparity -- Pre-Furman studies -- Post-Gregg studies -- Race and the federal capital sentencing process -- Explanations for disparate treatment -- McCleskey v. Kemp : the Supreme Court and racial discrimination in the application of the death penalty -- The aftermath of McCleskey : calls for reform or abolition of the death penalty -- The death penalty in the 21st century -- The movement to reform the death penalty -- The movement to abolish the death penalty -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
9. Corrections in America : a colorful portrait : corrections vs. college : minorities in society -- Goals of the chapter -- The incarcerated : prison and jail populations -- Minority overrepresentation -- Race, ethnicity, and recidivism -- Historical trends -- Impact of the war on drugs -- Incarceration rates -- Jails and minorities -- The role of jail -- Minority overrepresentation -- Community corrections -- Parole : early release from prison -- Success and failure on parole -- Probation : a case of sentencing discrimination? -- Community corrections : a native American example -- Theoretical perspectives on the racial distribution of correctional populations -- Adjustment to prison -- Prison gangs -- Women in prison -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
10. Minority youth and crime : minority youth in court -- Goals of the chapter -- Young racial minorities as victims and offenders -- Juveniles as victims of crime -- Juveniles as offenders -- Juveniles of color and the police -- Race/ethnicity and the juvenile justice system -- Race/ethnicity and juvenile court outcomes in five jurisdictions -- Transfer of juveniles to criminal court -- Explaining disparate treatment of juvenile offenders -- Juveniles under correctional supervision -- Conclusion -- Discussion questions -- Notes --
11. The color of justice -- Race, crime, and justice -- Notes.
Fox Valley Technical College